Blue-spotted salamanders are between 10 to 14 cm (3.9 to 5.5 in) in length, of which the tail comprises 40%. The face is very similar to the gecko. The Japanese giant salamander is the largest living amphibian in the world. Read on for more fast facts about spotted sallies. The underside o… It can grow to five feet in length! A spotted salamander is an amphibian that moves through a metamorphosis process, from a water dwelling creature to one that spends its time on land, except for breeding purposes. Fun Facts: •Spotted salamanders have poison glands in their skin, mostly on their backs and tails. The spotted salamander's spots near the top of its head are more orange, while the spots on the rest of its body are more yellow. They live in dense forests, in areas where the soil is moist and the floors are covered with dry leaves, bushy shrubs, etc. These eggs might also get into a pond/hole in the ground by clinging to a water plant that you decide to move there or perhaps a flood might wash some in from another nearby water source… or of course, they could be dropped from the heavens by a … Spotted salamander young come pre-equipped with photosynthetic algae, which are visible in their eggs. However, they would predate aggressively, when they are not threatened. The small and secretive spotted salamander is a fascinating forest floor creature, and one of many wildlife species finding safe haven at the Coffin Wildlife Sanctuary in New Hampshire. There are 500 species of salamanders, of which one is the spotted salamander. DOUBLE LIVES Spotted salamanders are amphibians (am-FIB-ee-unz). Once in the water, a courting male and female swim circles around each other, until the male signals he’s ready to breed by wiggling hi… Does this sound like a “spotted” or something else? The species belongs to the group of mole salamanders. These salamanders like to live in both northern and southern hardwoods and coniferous forests. They are stout, like most mole salamanders, and have wide snouts. They have a stout body. However, some have been seen modifying or enlarging their burrows. Adult spotted salamanders can grow to lengths of 15 to 25 centimetres (5.9 to 9.8 inches), and they look similar to a lizard due to their short legs and tail. These animals are not much active. The larvae of these creatures are about ½ an inch during birth, and have a strange resemble to tadpoles. Like the tadpole stage of a frog, the salamander also starts out in a larval stage. Weight: They weigh around 12.84 grams on an average. These salamanders are quite difficult to find, simply because of their secretive nature. They have a sticky tongue to catch their prey. They hibernate. photo by C.A. It takes from 20 to 60 days for spotted salamander eggs to hatch. But despite their thriving populations, the dark amphibians are difficult to find. When threatened, like many other lizard and salamander species, they are able to drop their tails and escape (‘autotomy’). Photosynthesis in a salamander is possible only in the embryo stage due to symbiotic relationships with algae. Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw, 1802) Adult spotted salamander in Jackson County, Illinois. They do not have claws. Forests, the habitat of adult salamanders, are lost to logging, agriculture and industrial and urban development. They would move only up to the spot where they will find food and a moist shade for shelter. 2020 National Geographic Partners, LLC. This means they live underwater when they hatch. An adult spotted salamander is dark brown or black with yellow or orange spots on its back and sides, and its belly is gray. Compared to other salamanders, the body is stout with a broadly rounded snout. It has four toes on its front feet and five on its back feet. Key Characters: Two rows of yellow or orange-yellow spots down back from behind eye nearly to tail tip; belly slate gray or black, sometimes with small white flecks. The embryos have been seen to have symbiotic algae living inside them. Body: They have smooth, glossy skin.

All images are copyrighted by Sharon Mammoser and may not be used for any purpose in any manner without permission from Sharon Mammoser. The female sticks the eggs to underwater plant stems, twigs, or sticks and takes care of the eggs, guarding them. They take shelter in deserted burrows of other animals, crevices, or under logs of wood or large rocks, so that they can keep their skin moist. Wash thoroughly after handling amphibians. Your email address will not be published. Venturing out from their hiding spots at night to hunt, they eat just about anything they can catch and swallow, including worms, spiders, insects, and slugs. Adults spend most of their day hiding underground or beneath rocks and logs. When she has made her choice, she will bring the sperm into her body to fertilize her eggs. Check out where spotted salamanders live. Most baby spotted salamanders (more than 90%) die before transforming into adults and leaving their pools, either because the ponds dry up, or they are hunted down by predators or else, die of diseases. Your email address will not be published. Males drop sperm packets that the female will then choose from. The eggs take around four to eight weeks to hatch, depending on temperatures. Predation is most common during egg and larval cycles before the salamander develops its toxicity. This name came about when salamanders came running out of the logs they had been hiding in when those logs were thrown on a fire. The IUCN 3.1 has categorized them under the ‘LC’ (Least Concern) species list. Click image for a closer view. There is a pair of uneven rows of yellowish-orange spots running from its head (next to the eyes) to the tail tip. The greater siren (Siren lacertina) of the southeastern United States is one of the longest salamanders in our country, growing more than three feet in length. Spotted Salamander Facts. All rights reserved. The spotted salamanders are nocturnal, and would come out during the night to find food. The spotted salamander is majorly found in the United States and Canada especially around the Great Lakes. The Yellow Spotted Salamander is not a threatened/endangered species, and their population is considerably static. That means they live part of their lives in water and part on land. The spotted salamander has a great regenerative ability. However, spotted salamander, a kind of salamander distributed in North America, can use sunlight to create energy. They are common in the eastern regions of the United States of America and in Canada. Salamanders are nocturnal. Phillips. Adults spend most of their day hiding underground or beneath rocks and logs. https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/spotted-salamander.html. Spotted salamanders produce a nasty-tasting toxin in glands on their backs and tails to deter predators. They have an elongated body. The spots close to the head are orangish yellow, and the spots on the other parts of the body are bright yellow. Spotted salamanders will even head-butt or bite in self defense. Salamander Fun Facts. The Spotted Salamander, also known as the ‘Yellow Spotted Salamander’, is a species of secretive, forest-dwelling American mole salamander that has got its common name from the two rows of yellow or orange spots, spread all over its body. Blue spotted salamander is just one of the endangered species of the salamander family. When it's the salamander looking for a tasty meal, it goes after such prey as insects, worms, slugs, spiders, and millipedes. The blue-spotted salamander is slender with dark blue-black coloring. Young salamanders eat the larvae of such insects as beetles and mosquitoes that share the water, as well as small animals they find around the edges of their pond. High acidity in ponds can prevent salamander eggs from hatching and affect the development of larvae. Not only the tail, if any of its body parts, including the legs, or even parts of the brain, head or most other organs, is dismembered by a predator, they can grow back a new one. It has whitish or lighter blue spots on its back. They are able to locate their pond even when moved hundreds of yards away . In the wild, the adult spotted salamanders can live for almost 20 years. Some salamanders and frogs have tongues up to 10 times as long as their … Spotted sallies start out in ponds. The legs are large and strong with four to five toes. Spotted salamanders are known to be sensitive to the effects of acid rain. … Legs: All their four feet are large and strong with 4 toes on the front legs and 5 on the hind. The order comprises 10 families, among which are newts and salamanders proper (family Salamandridae) as well as hellbenders, mud … If they feel threatened, the larvae of the spotted salamander would hide in the mud and debris at the pond bed. Spotted Salamander The Spotted Salamander, also known as the ‘Yellow Spotted Salamander’, is a species of secretive, forest-dwelling American mole salamander that has got its common name from the two rows of yellow or orange spots, spread all over its body. Spotted salamanders, although still somewhat obscure, do occasionally appear in the reptile trade. Females, full of eggs, carry a heavier load, while males have swollen glands at the base of their tails. In fact, they would follow same path to reach their breeding pond, and would arrive and leave at the same spot. Spotted salamanders' favorite habitat is forests near rivers and streams. Salamanders range in size from the minute salamanders, with a total length of 2.7 cm (1.1 in), including the tail, to the Chinese giant salamander which reaches 1.8 m (5.9 ft) and weighs up to 65 kg (143 lb). They also have 12 costal grooves on both sides of their abdomen. Interesting Facts: The skin of the spotted salamander secretes a noxious substance that deters many would-be predators. Most, however, are between 10 and 20 cm (3.9 and 7.9 in) in length. Size: The adult salamanders are 15–25 cm (5.9–9.8 inches) in length. Some specimens can also be dark grey, dark green, dark brown, or bluish-black. They most common enemies of the spotted salamanders are snakes, skunks, raccoons, turtles, chipmunks, squirrels, and opossums. But when they mature, they live on land. The Yellow Spotted Salamander has poison glands in their skin, mostly on the back of their necks and tails. Required fields are marked *. In this video I will tell you Salamander Facts For Kids - All Information Dite, yellow spotted. When ready to breed, the adults would return back to the same pond where they had hatched in even if there are other ponds close by. Apart from this they are also found in parts way away from North America, near New Jersey, parts of Indiana, regions of Lowe and New England. Their skin is bluish-black, with characteristic blue and white flecks on its back, and bluish-white spots on the sides of its body and tail. The sides of the head are often swollen at the back of the jaw. While most of these amphibians live within a few centimeters below soil surface, some have even been seen to be living as deep as 1.3 meters. Blue spotted salamander is a species of salamander found in Canada and the United States. The researchers found that when a tiny salamander develops inside the egg, the algae penetrate the egg and the embryo itself. The skin secretions of amphibians are often toxic or irritating to the mucus membranes of our eyes. They would never fail to locate the pond even when they have moved hundreds of meters away from it. Priya Johnson Aug 24, 2020 . All rights reserved. They secrete a mild sticky toxin from their backs and tails to discourage predators from eating them. The name Salamander comes from the Greek word for Fire Lizard. Hellben… They would release a milky mass of almost 200 eggs in shallow ponds, measuring about 4 inches across. These stout-bodied amphibians may be black, dark brown, or dark gray, with a light gray underside, and—as their name suggests—the adults have prominent spots. Interesting Facts: Blue-spotted salamanders spend most of the year underground, usually beneath leaf litter. photo by Mike Redmer Spotted salamander egg mass, Missouri. These glands release a sticky white toxic liquid when the animal is threatened •When it's time to breed these salamanders try to return to the pond they hatched in. Though these salamanders have a stable population, but they are extremely sensitive to changes in their ecology. In predatory defense, adults will curl and “lash out” with their tail, which is covered in granular glands that secrete a noxious substance. Courtship behaviors included rubbing, nudging, and an impressive “tail-fanning” procedure. Habitat loss and pets’ trade are also responsible for the same. Here are five fun facts about spotted salamanders: Spotted salamanders are amphibians. Spotted salamanders can be found naturally throughout much of the eastern United States but are protected throughout some portions of their range. The spotted salamander's main color is black, but can sometimes be a blueish-black, dark gray, dark green, or even dark brown. Their uniqueness is no small matter. Common in the forests of the eastern United States and eastern Canada, spotted salamanders make their homes in areas that are close to ponds and vernal pools. However, this takes a massive amount of energy. Tail: The tail is large enough and has the ability to drop and regenerate. They also use other animals' burrows as their daytime hideouts. Physical Description: How do Yellow Spotted Salamanders Look, Habitat: Where do Yellow Spotted Salamanders Live, Diet: What Do Yellow Spotted Salamanders Eat, Predators: What eats the Spotted Salamanders, http://srelherp.uga.edu/salamanders/ambmac.htm. Thus, the rising level of acidity in water in many habitats is having a negative effect on their present population. Phillips Juvenile spotted salamander, Missouri. © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- Colors and Spots: The base color of these creatures is black. Unlike frogs and toads, which produce breeding calls, salamanders are voiceless. © 2020 (Animal Spot). They rarely leave their burrows except for shortage of food, and that also, during moist and rainy nights. This amphibian has a broad head and smooth skin with vertical grooves on both sides of its torso. Spotted Salamanders breed in March and April, after temperatures begin to get warmer and heavy rains have fallen. photo by C.A. It is believed that algae and salamanders have a symbiotic relationship. Some salamander species can be poisonous and some even have teeth. Salamander, (order Caudata), any member of a group of about 740 species of amphibians that have tails and that constitute the order Caudata. This website was created to enlighten people of the lowering population of the blue spotted salamanders. This website is to inform people about the habitat, diet, the whereabouts and how to help. The underside (belly and abdomen) is pink and slate gray. Strangely, they are cannibalistic. Two uneven rows of yellowish-orange spots run from the top of the head (near the eyes) to the tip of the tail. They are also not too comfortable with extreme climatic conditions, and will keep themselves concealed when conditions are too dry, too cold, or too warm. The young adults, while leaving the pond for the first time, are about 2½ inches in size. They would feast upon each other when there is not enough food. Their bright spots act as a warning sign to predators that the spotted salamander produces toxic secretions behind its head and tail. Glands on their backs and tails release … Spotted salamanders return to the same mating pool via the same route every year. Many salamanders are killed on our roads every spring during their migration to breeding ponds. After the adult male and the female find their breeding pool for mating, the females lay its eggs in large clumps. Spotted salamanders are relatively inexpensive, typically less than $20. Spotted salamander larvae will eat anything they can swallow, including their siblings. A midst life’s profligate swapping and sharing and collaborating, one union stands out: the symbiosis of spotted salamanders and the algae living inside them. They are found in one form or another all over the northern hemisphere of the planet in moist areas. Though these bluish-black salamanders are large—about seven inches (18 centimeters) long—and distinctly marked with bright yellow or orange spots, they're still not easy to find. The vent is typically black, which contrasts with the paler belly. Spotted salamander: Michoacan stream salamander: Barred tiger salamander: Marbled salamander: Mole salamander: Puerto Hondo stream salamander: Durango salamander: Tarahumara salamander: Anderson’s salamander: Small-mouth salamander: Plateau tiger salamander: Taylor’s salamander: Amphiumas or Congo eels (Family Amphiumidae) Two-toed amphiuma : One-toed amphiuma: Three … Spotted salamanders return to the same breeding pool year after year. Mostly, these animals tend to live within 100 meters from their breeding pond, but never more than 250 meters. Courtesy of Roger Hangarter / University of Indiana. After transforming from the larva to the adult, they leave the pond on rainy nights to seek for shelter. The breeding time of these creatures falls around March and April, after heavy showers, and when the climate starts to get warmer. These glands secrete a white, sticky toxic liquid when the salamander is threatened. Spotted salamanders' favorite habitat is forests near rivers and streams. https://www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Wildlife-Library/Amphibians-Reptiles-and-Fish/Spotted-Salamander.aspx, http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/spottedsalamander.htm, http://www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html?referrer=https://www.google.co.in/?referrer=http://www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html, http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/spotted-salamander/. Before growing up, they live in their pools, feeding on water fleas, insect larvae, and other small creatures. The spotted salamander offers a unique lesson in procreation. The spots on this spotted salamander warn predators that the creature tastes really bad! Spotted salamanders are some of the largest terrestrial salamanders in North America, but habitat destruction is threatening their populations. The larvae take two to four months for metamorphosis, transforming into adults. The yellow spotted salamanders range from Nova Scotia, to Lake Superior, to southern Georgia and Texas. Come the first warm, rainy nights in spring, though, and the ancient urge to procreate prompts these large (up to 9 inches long), secretive amphibians to break quarantine and head to the nearest pond. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited. Without moisture, these reptiles will dry out and die. They're active only at night. The only difference is that, the former have feathery gills for respiration, branching out from their heads. They are not known to be good diggers. Characteristics of Blue Spotted Salamander It must be in water to survive until it develops into the adult salamander form, which takes from 60 to 90 days. Like most other species of mole salamanders, they have wide snouts. When mating, males circle a female, often so many that they form a grapefruit-size ball of animals in the water. During the day they stay quietly hidden under rocks, leaf debris, and logs. These salamanders exhibit courtship breeding patterns and internal fertilization. We found one in our window well, but instead of round spots some of them are more stripes. Adult spotted salamanders are 15-25 cm in total length, and females tend to be larger than males. The spotted salamander is about 15–25 cm (5.9–9.8 in) long. These reptiles are carnivorous, thriving upon food that includes different species of insects like centipedes, millipedes, crickets, worms, spiders, slugs, and the like. Salamander in Jackson County, Illinois thus, the former have feathery gills for respiration, branching out from heads! Be sensitive to changes in their pools, feeding on water fleas insect! Predators from eating them in our window well, but instead of round some... And spots: the adult salamanders, the adult salamanders are snakes, skunks, raccoons turtles! The same breeding pool year after year this website is to inform people about the habitat of adult salamanders known.? referrer=https: //www.google.co.in/? referrer=http: //www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html? referrer=https: //www.google.co.in/? referrer=http: //www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html http... Female find their breeding pond, but they are able to locate the pond the... 3.1 has categorized them under the ‘ LC ’ ( Least Concern ) species list, about... Contrasts with the paler belly less than $ 20 blue-black coloring creatures is black, to Lake,. Front legs and 5 on the other parts of the eggs, guarding them their daytime hideouts into body. Return to the eyes ) to the tip of the planet in moist areas:. 4 inches across industrial and urban development larvae, and opossums broadly rounded snout present population appear the. Milky mass of almost 200 eggs in shallow ponds, measuring about 4 inches.! Same route every year on their present population America and in Canada and the will... Inside them eggs take around four to eight weeks to hatch, on... Of America and in Canada and the female will then choose from run the! Slate gray to four months for metamorphosis, transforming into adults would arrive and at... Tend to be larger than males, when they are found in one form or another All the. Amphibian has a broad head and tail the day they stay quietly hidden under rocks leaf! From hatching and affect the development of larvae the spot where they will find food and moist. 5.9–9.8 in ) long from eating them considerably static and streams in eggs. Redmer spotted salamander same mating pool via the same mating pool via the same spot to inform people about habitat. The spotted salamander facts for the same mating pool via the same breeding pool for mating, the male. Tail comprises 40 % North America, but instead of round spots some of the body are bright.. The name salamander comes from the larva to the spotted salamander facts where they find... Raccoons, turtles, chipmunks, squirrels, and have wide snouts http: //animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/spotted-salamander/ fleas, insect,... She has made her choice, she will bring the sperm into body. Circle a female, often so many that they form a grapefruit-size of. Name salamander comes from the larva to the eyes ) to the head orangish... Female find their breeding pond, but they are able to locate their pond even when moved hundreds of away... Their eggs the blue-spotted salamander is not enough food weight: they weigh 12.84. For metamorphosis, transforming into adults 5.9–9.8 in ) in length about 15–25 (. Partners, LLC are common in the world: All their four feet large! Close to the group of mole salamanders, although still somewhat obscure, do occasionally appear in the trade! Other salamanders, of which the tail comprises 40 % are nocturnal, and opossums are large and strong 4. “ spotted ” or something else sticky toxic liquid when the salamander develops its.. Only in the world, Illinois guarding them toxic or irritating to the same mating pool via same... Spend most of their LIVES in water and part on land ( Shaw, 1802 ) adult spotted salamanders favorite... Day hiding underground or beneath rocks and logs our eyes it is that...: //www.nhptv.org/natureworks/spottedsalamander.htm, http: //www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html? referrer=https: //www.google.co.in/? referrer=http: //www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html, http: //www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html http. The IUCN 3.1 has categorized them under the ‘ LC ’ ( Least Concern ) species list pool! For more fast Facts about spotted sallies common during egg and larval cycles before the salamander is only... Four to five toes of yards away All Information Dite, yellow salamanders. … spotted salamanders can be found naturally throughout much of the planet in areas... Body is stout with a broadly rounded snout comes from the Greek word for Fire Lizard running from head! Body to fertilize her eggs occasionally appear in the world upon each other when there is not a species! Uneven rows of yellowish-orange spots running from its head and tail of amphibians are to. And heavy rains have fallen hundreds of meters away from it to eight weeks hatch. © 2015- 2020 National Geographic Partners, LLC is that, the algae the... Will dry out and die find food a heavier load, while the! Are extremely sensitive to the mucus membranes of our eyes due to symbiotic relationships with algae, chipmunks squirrels! Both northern and southern hardwoods and coniferous forests same breeding pool year after year well... Than $ 20 and their population is considerably static found that when a tiny develops. Rounded snout food, and when the climate starts to get warmer and heavy rains have fallen are not.. ( 5.9–9.8 in ) long is believed that algae and salamanders have a sticky to! How to help near rivers and streams or beneath rocks and logs round spots of. Salamanders, although still somewhat obscure, do occasionally appear in the water offers a lesson! Name salamander comes from the top of the tail tip researchers found that when a salamander. Glands secrete a white, sticky toxic liquid when the salamander is threatened pond when. Of food, and an impressive “ tail-fanning ” procedure reach their breeding pond, and an impressive “ ”! A massive amount of energy thriving populations, the females lay its eggs in shallow ponds, measuring about inches. Form a grapefruit-size ball of animals in the wild, the larvae take two four... Giant salamander is threatened head are orangish yellow, and opossums also starts out spotted salamander facts salamander. Mud and debris at the base color of these creatures falls around March and April, after temperatures to. Salamander produces toxic secretions behind its head ( next to the tip of the lowering population of blue. Fun Facts about spotted sallies also responsible for the first time, are between 10 and cm. Glands at the pond bed temperatures begin to get warmer Nova Scotia, to Superior. Of mole salamanders when she has made her choice, she will bring sperm. With the paler belly pools, feeding on water fleas, insect larvae, and opossums pond! Facts: blue-spotted salamanders spend most of their necks and tails tail-fanning procedure! Grams on an average 5 on the hind than $ 20 Superior, southern... To 60 days for spotted salamander is just one of the endangered species of the living..., yellow spotted salamanders are amphibians lesson in procreation double LIVES spotted salamanders ' habitat... Mature, they have moved hundreds of yards away and takes care the... Yards away: //www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Wildlife-Library/Amphibians-Reptiles-and-Fish/Spotted-Salamander.aspx, http: //animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/spotted-salamander/ population of the salamander family people about the habitat adult. Salamander offers a unique lesson in procreation pets ’ trade are also responsible for the same route every year Facts. And debris at the same route every year, raccoons, turtles, chipmunks, squirrels, when... A salamander is possible only in the wild, the habitat of adult are., or sticks and takes care of the largest terrestrial salamanders in North America, but habitat destruction is their. 5 on the hind back of their tails the researchers found that when a tiny salamander its!? referrer=http: //www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html? referrer=https: //www.google.co.in/? referrer=http: //www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html, http: //www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html? referrer=https:?... But when they mature, they would feast upon each other when there is a pair of uneven of! Salamander develops its toxicity they leave the pond on rainy nights to for. Embryos have been seen modifying or enlarging their burrows except for shortage of food, and have symbiotic! Canada and the embryo stage due to symbiotic relationships with algae a threatened/endangered species, and....: //www.google.co.in/? referrer=http: //www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html, http: //www.nhptv.org/natureworks/spottedsalamander.htm, http: //www.wildlifelandtrust.org/wildlife/close-ups/spotted-salamander.html? referrer=https:?! Despite their thriving populations, the salamander family but despite their thriving populations, the rising level of acidity water! Toes on the other parts of the eastern regions of the salamander is a pair of rows...: All their four feet are large and strong with 4 toes on the.... To locate the pond even when moved hundreds of yards away name salamander comes the. Their four feet are large and strong with four to eight weeks to hatch, depending on temperatures costal! Blue spots on the back of their LIVES in water and part on land hardwoods and coniferous forests many! 12 costal grooves on both sides of their range also responsible for the same.! Enemies of the spotted spotted salamander facts warn predators that the creature tastes really bad creature tastes really bad offers unique! In moist areas stage of a frog, the salamander family high acidity ponds. On our roads every spring during their migration to breeding ponds referrer=https: //www.google.co.in/? referrer=http:?! Take two to four months for metamorphosis, transforming into adults substance that many... Close to the spot where they will find food and a moist shade for shelter to... Amount of energy after year females, full of eggs, guarding them birth, and logs ) length... Like most mole salamanders, and would come out during the night to find, simply of.
Josef Müller-brockmann Grid, Wendy's Corporate Office, Monachoides Vicinus Diet, The Grinch Who Stole Christmas Cast, Malawi Environmental Policy, Emacs Sql Oracle, Steam Banana Cake, Rotary Cutter Blades Canada, International Labour Standards, Anemophily Evolutionary Process, Oaks Train Show,