Stigma is long, sticky but wettable. (vi)   The flowers are well exposed in the air. Example: Zostera. e.g., Oxalis. When flowers are unisexual, male flowers are more abundant than female flowers. It is a very rare type of pollination, even in aquatic plants. Pollination carried out through water is hydrophily. Examples: Vallisneria spiralis, Elodea. The male and female sex organs lie at some distance from each other. Cross pollination is named after the agency that assists it. About eph/epihydrophily. eg., Papaya, some cucurbits etc. The anemophilous flowers are characterized by the following adaptations : (i)     Flowers are small colourless, inconspicuous, odourless and nectarless. Najas is the largest of the 18 hydrophilous angiosperm genera, however, study of pollination biology in the genus is largely ignored. It is called self incompatibility. The upper arm is long and curved. ... Epihydrophily and Hypohydrophily. While sinking, they come in contact with stigma of female flowers to produce pollination. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Cross pollination results in healthy and stronger offsprings due to phenomenon of hybrid vigour. It involves two main groups of agents – biotic agents which include animals of different types such as insects, bird, bats, snails etc. It is described as epihydrophily. Some examples of water pollinated plants are Vallisneria and Hydrilla which grow in fresh water and several marine sea-grasses such as Zostera. In some other flowers, the pollens are held together to form pollinia which can only be carried away by insects. It is of 2 types-EPIHYDROPHILY-Surface pollination is more frequent and appears to be a transitional phase between wind pollination and true hydrophily. Epihydrophily takes place over the surface of water, e.g., Vallisneria. When the male flowers are mature, the individual anthers break off and settle through the water until they reach a groove near the stigma of a female flower, leading to pollination. Primula, Linum, etc. The liberated pollen germinate and sink in water. When they reach the stigma, they oil around it and germinate. In Ceratophyllum desnersum (a submerged fresh water plant), the male flower bears 30-45 stamens. The birds visit a large variety of flowers such as. It is of two types : (1) Self pollination : This process involves the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers to the stigma of the same flower or of another flower borne by the same plant. Under such conditions, the cross pollination is the only option. | Entomophilous flowers produce a small amount of pollen which has a spinous and sticky exine due to presence of pollenkitt. The birds visit a large variety of flowers such as Bombax (red silk cotton), Erythrina (Coral tree), Callistemon (Bottle brush), Bignonia, Agave, etc. The flower of orchid ophrys resemble in shape colour and odour to female wasp of colpa aurea (mimicry). 6. Why Studyadda? Hydrophily is of two types, hypohydrophily and epihydrophily. Start studying pollination. water is a regular mode of transport for the male gametes among the lower plant groups such as algae, bryophytes, and pteridophytes. About 80% pollination occurs by insects like moths, beetles, butterflies, wasp, etc. Ncert Solutions These flowers secrete more nectar than ornithophilous flowers and open at night emit a good fragrance. Eg:Zostera,Ceratophylum,Hydrilla b)EPIHYDROPHILY: They have tubular or funnel-shaped corollas. Amazing Facts -Hypohydrophily: (Pollination below the surface of water) is observed in Zostera, Ceratophyllum. Since the bisexual flowers of Salvia are protandrous, (anthers mature earlier than the gynoecium), cross pollination occurs only when pollen-dusted bee visits older flowers with mature gynoecium. Notes The act of pollination is not performed by all the birds except a few. It is also called Xenogamy. b. Zostera marina: In Zostera marina, the pollen grains are elongated (up to 2,500 mm), like needle and without exine. i)         Cross pollination brings about genetic recombination and production of new varieties (variations). iii)    Several crop plants (such as Mustard, Safflower, Sunflower, Clover, Cucurbits), give significantly higher yields if bees are available and cross pollination is allowed to occur. Ex: Zostera, Vallisneria Characters: Flowers are small and inconspicuous. Bees are the chief visitors of flowers and they obtain both nectar and pollen from the flowers. Latest … Vallisneria) (b) Hypohydrophily ( inside water) e.g. Sometimes ants take their food or shelter on some trees such as Mango, Litchi, South American Acacia and so on. Salvia is excellent example of insect pollination is which pollination occurs by lever or turn pipe mechanism. Purchase Courses (vii) The stigmas are large, well-exposed, hairy, feathery or branched to catch the air-borne pollen grains. Accordingly, self pollination is of … They have the same specific gravity as that of water, therefore float below the surface of water. The female plant bears solitary flowers which rise to the surface of water level using a long coiled stalk at the time of pollination. Yucca is pollinated by Pronuba (= Tegaticula) yuccasella which passes its larval stage inside the ripening ovary. Transfer of pollen grains shed from anther to stigma of a pistil is called pollination.Flowering plants have evolved an amazing array of adaptations to achieve pollination.Plants can be pollinated by 3 kinds. 3 sec, OTP has been sent to your mobile number and is valid for one hour. The anther has two parts - one half is sterile and another half is fertile. The nectar is chiefly made of sugars and provides a sweetdrink to the bird. Pollination through the agency of animals is known as zoophily. Hypohydrophily is true hydrophily which occurs below the surface of water. In this study, the pollination mechanism of Najas marina L. was observed in two freshwater lakes as well as in aquaria. Franchise marine Zostera (Zosteraceae). They have similar specific gravity as that of water; thus float beneath the surface of water. Pollination takes place completely under water (hypohydrogamous) in Naias and Ceratophyllum while it takes place on the water surface (epihydrogamous) in the common water weeds Vallisneria, Hydrilla and Elodea of Hydrocharitaceae. | | The process is not definite because plants depend on agencies. Androecium matures and shed pollen gynoecium eg. The liberated pollen germinates and sinks in water. Humming bird pollinates while hovering over the flowers and sucking nectar. Hydrophily occurs only in a few aquatic plants. | Chiropterophilous flowers produce abundant pollen grains and secrete more nectar than the ornithophilous flowers. Privacy Policy The insects visit the flowers for nectar, edible pollen grains or shelter. It is of two types : (i) Autogamy : It is a kind of pollination in which the pollen from the anthers of a flower are transferred to the stigma of the same flower. The pollen grains can, therefore, float below the surface of water. Chiropterophilous flowers produce abundant pollen grains. | Submarine pollination in the marine angiosperm Zostera marina (Zosteraceae). Notification https://www.studyadda.com Epihydrophily : When the pollination takes place on the surface of water, i.e., Vallisneria and Ruppia. Hydrophily is of two types: Hypohydrophily Plants which are pollinated inside the water. In certain plants, they are produced above the foliage before the appearance of new leaves. Each stamen has a short filament and an elongated curved connective. Two general, but sometimes rather arbitrary, forms of hy drophily are recognized: 1) epihydrophily; pollination via pollen transport at the water surface (two-dimensional), and 2) hypohy drophily; pollination via pollen … Following compatible pollination, the pollen grain germinates on the stigma to produce a pollen tube through one of the germ pores. They have tubular or funnel-shaped corollas. Cross Pollination involves the transfer of pollen grains from the flower of one plant to the stigama of the flower of another plant. While sinking, they come in contact with stigma of female flowers to effect pollination. 2. Biotic agents (a) Entomophily : When pollination is brought about by the agency of insects, it is known as entomophily or insect pollination. For example, a single flower of. Water pollination is of two types (a) Epihydrophily ( on surface of water e.g. Vallisneria is dioecious. Ceratophyllum, Najas Zostera and Hydrilla. Gynoecium matures earlier than androecium eg. The mature anthers break at the base, mount to the surface of water and dehisce there. Hydrophily occurs only in some 30 genera of mostly monocots e.g., Vallisneria, Zostera, Ceratophyllum, etc. They have, The flowers are large or if small they are grouped into inflorescence. Examples: Zostera Ceratophyllum Najas Epihydrophily Plants which are pollinated outside the water. The important pollinating insects are bees, butterflies, moths, wasps, bettles etc. • Pollination takes place through water. eg.. : The stigmas project far above the stamens. Agents for cross pollination : Cross pollination involves external agents for the transfer of pollen grains of one flower to the stigma of another flower. It is a very rare type of pollination, even in aquatic plants. Eg:Lemma,Zostera,Vallisneria TYPES OF HYDROPHILY: a)HYPOHYDROPHILY: It occurs below the surface of water. The contents of the pollen grain move into the pollen tube. ii) The flowers are brightly coloured (such as red, yellow, orange, blue, etc.) Arisaema (aroid; snake plant) is often visited by snails. Pollination through the agency of animals is known as zoophily. In Zostera, the marine angiosperm (Sea Grass), the pollen grains are long ribon-like (upto 2500 mm) and without exine. Pollen grains are light and non-wettable due to presence of mucilage cover. Biotic agents (a) Entomophily : When pollination is brought about by the agency of insects, it is known as entomophily or insect pollination. They havepollen sacs or pollen baskets for collecting pollen. Surface and submarine pollination in the seagrass Zostera marina L. Hydrophilous plants can be divided into three ecological categories depending upon whether their pollen is transported above, on, or under the water surface. The members of Hydrocharitaceae almost pollinate by hydrophily only. A mixed mode of submarine and surface hydrophilous pollination occurs in the seagrass Zostera marina L. (iv) Herkogamy : In some bisexual flowers where the stigma and anthers mature at the same time, self pollination is avoided by some sort of barrier. The second one is abiotic agent like wind and water. Hypohydrophily : Plants which are pollinated inside the water e.g., Zostera, Ceratophyllum, Najas, etc. When the male flowers are mature, the individual anthers break off and settle through the water until they reach a groove near the stigma of a female flower, leading to pollination. • Pollination takes place through water. (2) Cross pollination : Cross pollination involves the transfer of pollen grains from the flower of one plant to the stigma of the flower of another plant. male and female flowers occur on separate plants. A detailed study of the inter-relationship between the structure of flower and insect pollinators clearly indicates that some angiospermous plants are dependent upon a particular type of insect for pollination. Videos A mixed mode of submarine and surface hydrophilous pollination occurs in the seagrass Zostera marina L. Reproduction: Questions 53-60 of 119. Each flower has two epipetalous stamens located in anterio-lateral position. (ii) Biotic agents (a) Entomophily : When pollination is brought about by the agency of insects, it is known as entomophily or insect pollination. Vallisneria's male flower or pollen grain are released on the surface of water, which are passively carried away by water currents; some of them eventually reach … The flowers usually possess nectar or edible pollen. The pollen grains of some plants are not functional. Both the parts of anther are separated apart due to elongation of connective. Several crop plants (such as Mustard, Safflower, Sunflower, Clover, Cucurbits), give significantly higher yields if bees are available and cross pollination is allowed to occur. Ex: Zostera, Vallisneria Characters: Flowers are small and inconspicuous. ... Epihydrophily and Hypohydrophily. (iii)  When flowers are unisexual, male flowers are more abundant than female flowers. Questions Bank The pollengrains are deposited upon the back of the bee. The pollen grains are long, needle like. 1. In Zostera marina, the pollen grains are elongated (up to 2,500 mm), like needle and without exine. These ants act as body guards of the plants against any disturbing agent and also helps in pollination. The flowers which are wind pollinated are called anemophilous. The stigmas of such flowers are long rough and sticky. Cross pollination is named after the agency that assists it. The flowers are protandrous. In bisexual flowers, the stamens are generally numerous. Cross pollination always occurs when the plants are unisexual and dioecious. COX, P. A., LAUSHMAN, R. H. & RUCKLESHAUS, M. H., 1992. Vallisneria is epihydrophily which occurs through the surface of the water. Each flower of Adansonia (Baobab Tree) has 1500-2000 stamens. Stigma is long, sticky but wettable. The birds visit a large variety of flowers such as Bombax (Red Silk Cotton), Erythrina (Coral Tree), Callistemon (Bottle Brush), Bignonia, Agave, ete. The flowers of some plants have different lengths of stamens and styles so that self pollination is not possible eg. e.g.Vallisneria (Ribbon weed). Eg:Zostera,Ceratophylum,Hydrilla b)EPIHYDROPHILY: Pollination followed by fertilization and consequently development of fruit and seed not only produces foods but also is one of the important building block of crop improvement. (iii) Heterostyly : The plants of some species in which flowers are dimorphic. The pollen tube grows through the tissues of the stigma and style and reaches the ovary. The flowers they visit are large, dull-coloured and have a strong scent. Example: Vallisneria. The elongated connective has two unequal arms. It usually occurs in plants which show monoecious condition (unisexual, male and female flowers are borne on the same plant). fig. Pollination is defined as the process of transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of the same flower or of different flower of the same species. The act of pollination is not performed by all the birds except a few. (BS) Developed by Therithal info, Chennai. Flowers are brightly coloured and produce plenty of nectar and large quantities of pollen. (Gk. SELF POLLINATION It is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of either the same or genetically similar flower. Ackerman J. This condition is called cleistogamy, e.g., Commelina bengalensis, Oxalis, Viola, etc. Cross pollination always occurs when the plants are unisexual and dioecious. water is a regular mode of transport for the male gametes among the lower plant groups such as algae, bryophytes, and pteridophytes. Pollen transport in flow fields and capture by stigmas. The flowers are large or if small they are grouped into inflorescence. Hypohydrophily :Plants which are pollinated inside the water e.g.Zostera, Ceratophyllum, Najas, etc. amorphophallus. Contrivances for self pollination : The major contrivances or adaptations which favours self pollination are : (a) Bisexuality : Flowers should be bisexual or hermophrodite. Stigma is long, sticky but wettable. Thus facilitate cross pollination. Stigmas are usually unbranched and may be flat or lobed. New and healthier varieties are not formed. Hypohydrophily : Plants which are pollinated inside the water e.g., Zostera, Ceratophyllum, Najas, etc. Examples: Zostera Ceratophyllum Najas Epihydrophily Plants which are pollinated outside the water. Epihydrophily :Plants which are pollinated outside the water. Pollination by water occurs in Ceratophyllum and Zostera. | inhibiting pollination is therefore likely to be the bursting or death of pollen grains, rather than their submergence. much more widespread pollination systems. Gynoecium matures earlier than androecium eg. Transfer of pollen grains shed from anther to stigma of a pistil is called pollination.Flowering plants have evolved an amazing array of adaptations to achieve pollination.Plants can be pollinated by 3 kinds. It is also called Xenogamy. Zostera, Ceratophyllum, Najas, etc. In sea grass like Zostera the pollen grains are filiform and the density of pollen grains is equal to the density of water. The nectar is chiefly made of sugars and provides a sweet drink to the bird. Nectar and odor are absent. It occurs in totally submerged plants and their pollen grains are water borne. This condition is called homogamy. a. Epihydrophily: Pollination occurs at the water level. The lower arm of connective is short and bears the sterile lobe of anther. Zoophily. Surface and submarine pollination in the seagrass Zostera marina L. Hydrophilous plants can be divided into three ecological categories depending upon whether their pollen is transported above, on, or under the water surface. As a bee visits the young flower and moves inward in search of nectar, its head pushes the sterile plate which brings down the fertile anther lobes to strike against its back. Pollen and stigma of the flower mature at different times to avoid self-pollination. which attract the birds from long distances. Some of the common chiropterophilous plants are - Kigelia pinnata (Sausage Tree), Adansonia (Baobab Tree), Bauhinia megalandra, Anthocephalus (Kadam Tree), etc. hypohydrophilly (3) zostera, najas, ceratophyllum. e.g., Anemone nemarosa (fruit). tallest flower (6 ft) amorphophallus. amorphophallus. It is the base of any plant diversity. In bisexual flowers, the stamens are generally numerous. Gloriosa superba : The style is reflexed away from the stamens. 3. plant to the stigama of the flower of another plant. Epihydrophily : Pollination occurs on the surface of water. It involves two main groups of agents – biotic agents which include animals of different types such as insects, bird, bats, snails etc. tallest flower (6 ft) amorphophallus. Xenos = Strange, gamos = marriage) or allogamy (gk, allos = other, gamos = marriage. Such plants set seeds only after cross pollination. Pollination. Hibiscus : The stigmas project far above the stamens. The pollen grains are long, needle like. Ornis = bird, philein = to love) is a mode of pollination performed by birds. They are shed under water. | Pollen grains are light and non-wettable due to presence of mucilage cover. Contrivances for cross pollination : Nature favours cross  pollination. Vallisneria is epihydrophily which occurs through the surface of the water. • All aquatic plants are not hydrophilous. The bird can derive about half of its body weight of nectar in a single day. The usual agents are wind, animals and water. Bajra, Aristolochia etc. Sometimes ants take their food or shelter on some trees such as, The pollination performed by any type of animal is called. e.g., Kigelia pinnata (Sausage tree), Adansonia (Baobab tree), Bauhinia megalandra, Anthocephalus (Kadam tree), etc. It is further divided into two parts: Epihydrophily: Pollination occurring on … Examples: Vallisneria (Ribbon weed) They have the same specific gravity as that of water. insect pollinated aquatic plants (4) lotus, alisma, lily, water hyacinth. Some classic examples are as follows : The genus Salvia belongs to family Labiatae (Mint family) in which the gamopetalous corolla is two-lipped (bilabiate). Bees are the chief visitors of flowers and they obtain both nectar and pollen from the flowers. Example: Zostera. insect pollinated aquatic plants (4) lotus, alisma, lily, water hyacinth. The pollination which takes place by means of water is known as hydrophily.It occurs only in aquatic plants.however,many aquatic plants with emerged flowers have other modes of pollination. In Epihydrophily pollination take place on the surface of water. Free Videos, Contact Us This type of pollination mainly observed in Graminae. It has already been stated that pollination, in a vast majority of cases, involves some agent. Pollen grains are small, light, dry, dusty and sometimes winged (or saccate) so that they are easily blown away to long distances (upto 1300 km). Examples: Vallisneria (Ribbon weed) (v)  Pollen grains of anemophilous flowers are produced in huge quantities. The purity of the generation is maintained. II. Nectar and odor are absent. is the male part of a flower and transferred to the flower’s female part called the stigma ii)       Cross pollination results in healthy and stronger offsprings due to phenomenon of hybrid vigour. Jobs (a) Anemophily : When flowers are pollinated by wind agency, the phenomenon is known as anemophily. Flowers are small colourless, inconspicuous, odourless and nectarless. Sexual reproduction of Zostera marina L. has been observed in vitro. In Zostera marina, the pollen grains are elongated (upto 2,500 mm), needle like and without exine. The flowers show following contrivances : (v) Self sterility or Incompatibility : When pollen grain of an anther do not germinate on the stigma of the same flower, then such flower is called self sterile or incompatible and this condition of flower is called self sterility, intraspecific incompatibility or self incompatibility. iv)    Variations caused due to cross pollination may result in production of disease resistant plants. It is also called xenogamy. ... beetles lay eggs and pollinate. The flowers are well exposed in the air. It is further divided into two parts: Epihydrophily: Pollination occurring on the water surface. Pollen grains are long, without exine, heavier than water , sink down to meet stigma of female flowers. All aquatic plants are not hydrophilous some are anemophilous e.g., Potamogeton, Myriophyllum or Entomophilous e.g., Alisma, Lotus. POLLINATION "Pollination is defined as the process of transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of the same flower or of different flower of the same species. | When stigma matures earlier than the stamens, it is known as protogyny and the flowers are called protogynous. Geitonogamy involves two flowers but these belong to the same parent plant. Refund Policy, You need to login to perform this action.You will be redirected in Some examples of water pollinated plants are Vallisneria and Hydrilla which grow in fresh water and several marine sea-grasses such as Zostera. Pollination carried out through water is hydrophily. Hydrophily is of two types : (a) Entomophily : When pollination is brought about by the agency of insects, it is known as entomophily or insect pollination. A remarkable array of pollination systems has been attributed to Callitriche (Philbrick and Anderson, 1992): anemophily, epihydrophily, and hy-pohydrophily. i.e. It is described as epihydrophily. Pollen grains are without exine and often elongated. (c) Cleistogamy : Some plants never open to ensure complete self-pollination. COX, P. A., LAUSHMAN, R. H. & RUCKLESHAUS, M. H., 1992. Lalit Sardana Sir The pollination which takes place by means of water is known as hydrophily.It occurs only in aquatic plants.however,many aquatic plants with emerged flowers have other modes of pollination. Land plants like Chrysanthemum and water plant like lemna shows malacophily. Pollination plays important role in genesis and evolution of a plant species. The most common bird pollinators are Sun bird, Humming bird, Crow, Bulbul, Parrot, Mynah, etc. Pollination types: Fig: Types of Pollination. The two sterile lobes jointly form a sterile plate of tissue which is placed at the mouth of corolla tube and partly blocks the path of the visiting insect. Flow chamber observations of the filamentous pollen of Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) revealed that pollen rotated and moved toward inflorescences where they were captured by stigmas. Vallisnaria -epihydrophily. | largest inflorescence (12 ft) amorphophallus. : The style is reflexed away from the stamens. This process is known as Hydrophily. Nectar and odor are absent. (b) Ornithophily : When flowers are pollinated by birds, the phenomenon is known as ornithophily. i.e. It is of two types. Cross pollination brings about genetic recombination and production of new varieties (variations). FAQ e.g., Vallisneria (Ribbon weed). 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Genetic recombination and production of disease resistant plants healthy and stronger offsprings due to presence of pollenkitt bees are chief... Pollinated aquatic plants ( 4 ) lotus, alisma, lily, water.. One of the pollen grains from the stamens ) pollen grains are elongated up! Lip provides platform for the visiting insect and the flowers of some plants never open to ensure self.! Reaches the ovary stagnant water ( Fig the ripening ovary and sticky due... Growth, bending or folding to ensure self pollination is not possible eg food shelter! Offsprings due to cross pollination involves the transfer of pollen which has a short and. Ornithophily: When the pollination is named after the agency that assists it mucilage... Parrot, Mynah, etc. Tegaticula ) yuccasella which passes its larval inside! ( inside water ) is observed in two freshwater lakes as well as aquaria! Snake plant ) is observed in vitro Chiropterophily: it occurs below surface! Through the surface of the flower of Cannabis produces, 5,00,000 pollengrains of hydrophily: flowers... Above the foliage before the appearance of new varieties ( variations ) ophrys resemble in shape colour and odour female... Styles so that self pollination is of two types: hypohydrophily plants are!